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COVID-19 Vaccine

COVID-19 Vaccines (Current Candidates)

There are currently 159 candidates for the vaccines, 11 of which have already conducted the human trials and 8 have been approved to move forward with further human testing. Moderna – RNA CanSino Biologics – Adenovirus type 5 Inovio – DNA BioNTech, Pfizer – RNA University of Oxford/ Astrazeneca – Chimp Adenovirus Novavax – Virus…

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COVID-19 Vaccine

VACCINES – Part 1 – Approaches (Platforms) for Development of a COVID-19 Vaccine

To understand the process behind vaccine development, you have to go back to my section on immunology and recall how the body fends off  a microbe. Recall that the first line of defense against a foreign entity like a virus is the innate immunity which tries to create a barrier against entry followed by a non-discriminate…

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COVID-19 Vaccine

VACCINES

In this series which will probably be about 10 parts I am going to talk about vaccines. There is much to know about development of a vaccine and I am going to try to break it down. As in my other posts you have to read these in sequence to get the most out of…

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UV light

The Influence of Temperature and UV Light on SARS-Cov-2

A study in Lancet looked at viability of the virus at 4 degrees celsius (which is the refrigerator temperature), at room temperature and at human body temperature. In liquid SARS-Cov 2 is stable at 4 degrees Celsius , that is in the refrigerator for over a week.   Therefore any item that is contaminated with…

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SARS-COV-2 disinfection

SARS-COV-2’s Viability on Surfaces

How long does SARS-Cov-2 survive on surfaces?  A study published in New England Journal of Medicine looked at the viability of the virus on surfaces.  The reduction of number of surfaces are measured in log numbers. Therefore we look at 10 fold reduction of viral agents. Say for example you have 100,000 viruses, then we…

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SARS-Cov-2

The Routes of Transmission of SARS-Cov-2

SARS- CoV is spread by multiple routes Droplets and fomite transmission. The first route of transmission is the direct route in which respiratory droplets are generated by an infected person and inhaled by a healthy person. The second route is an indirect route in which an infected person touches a common object or emits respiratory…

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COVID-19 and Heart Disease

COVID-19 and Heart Disease (Part 7)

Stress induced cardiomyopathy AKA Broken heart syndrome AKA Takosubo syndrome There is a condition known as stress induced cardiomyopathy.  In this condition the patient can present with chest pain, shortness of breath and have EKG abnormalities that are classic for a heart attack.  Echocardiogram reveals damage to the heart muscle identical to what is seen…

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COVID-19 and Heart Disease

COVID-19 and Heart Disease (Part 6)

Myocardial infarction (heart attack) In my last blogs, I explained that inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis) or the sac around the heart (pericarditis) can occur as a result of infection with SARS-Cov-2 .  However, the inflammation cascade that occurs with the virus can increase clotting and what is called as plaque rupture. This can…

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Pericarditis

COVID-19 and the Heart (part 5)

Pericarditis In my previous post, I explained the disease of myocarditis which can occur with COVID-19.  Myocarditis involves the severe inflammation of the muscle of the heart leading the pump to fail. Pericarditis is a more benign condition that involves the inflammation of the sack around the heart ( the pericardium). Pericarditis is painful. The…

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Myocarditis

COVID-19 and the Heart (Part 4)

Myocarditis COVID-19 disease is a highly inflammatory disease that can affect both the muscle of the heart (the myocardium) and the sack around the heart (pericardium). If it causes inflammation of the myocardium, the condition is called myocarditis (myo= muscle, cardio = heart, itis= inflammation). Patients with myocarditis are very vulnerable and can develop heart…

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